№ 1(3), 2019

 

Research article:

1. Tuzikov, Ivan Gennadyevich, Malinovkin, Vladislav Alekseevich


"Social Policy of State in Modern Russia"


№ 1(3), 2019,


Pp. 2-8.


Date of publication: 2 January, 2019


Article metadata

Abstract:

This article primarily addresses the issue of state social policy. Social policy plays a huge role in the domestic policy of any state, since problems arising in the social sphere are directly related to the development of the economic and political life of the country, and therefore are a kind of indicator of the development of society.

The study of social policy issues has long been in the spotlight. Social policy, being one of the most important components of state activity, should not only mitigate negative social phenomena, but also help the population adapt to new conditions, promote social support for reforms, implement positive changes in the economy, ensure social orientation of the population.

For modern Russia, this issue today is particularly relevant due to the need to form a new model of social policy. At present, first of all, it is necessary to find a solution regarding the role of the state in the new social policy, its functions and interaction with public institutions.

 

Keywords: social politics, social protection, social sector, prosperity, development, population, government.

 

Reference List

Ashmarov, I.A. (2006). Monetary policy and labour market. The development of financial relations in modern Russia: intercollege collection of scientific articles. Voronezh: Istoki Publishers. Pp. 15-19. (in Russ.).

Ashmarov, I.A. (2009). On the issue of socio-economic transformations in modern Russia. Risk and danger society of the 21st century: forecasts, scenarios for overcoming the crisis: the works of Vseross. scientific conference. Voronezh: Voronezh State Technical University. Pp. 124-127. (in Russ.).

Ashmarov, I.A. (2009). Social and institutional features of the modern Russian economy. Vestnik Vo-ronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta. Bulletin of the Voronezh State Technical Uni-versity. V. 5. №. 3. Pp. 22-24. (in Russ.).

Ashmarov, I.A. (2017). The value of state financial policy for the development of the economy and so-cial sphere. Socio-political processes in the modern world: the view of the young: materials of the student’s scientific-practical conference. January 17, 2017 Voronezh: Editorial and Publishing Department of the Vo-ronezh Branch of the RANEPA. Pp. 13-19. (in Russ.)

Constitution of the Russian Federation (2014) passed by nation-wide voting of December 12, 1993, Ar-ticle 7.

Dobrenkov V.I., Kravchenko A.I. (2002) Sociology: a short course. Pp. 231-235. (in Russ.)

Ershov, B.A., (2012) Historiographical aspects of the relationship between the Russian Orthodox Church and state structures in the provinces of the Central Chernozem region in the XIX -early XX centuries. Bulletin of the Voronezh State Technical University. Series "Humanities". Pp. 188-192. (in Russ.)

Ershov, B.A., (2012) State legal regulation of the activities of the Russian Orthodox Church in the prov-inces of the Central Chernozem region in the XIX -early XX centuries Historical, philosophical, political and legal sciences, culturology and arthistory. Questions of theory and practice. Pp. 75-78. (in Russ.)

Ershov, B.A., (2012) The Russian Orthodox Church in the system of public relations in the XIX– early centuries. (on materials of Central-Black earth Provinces) dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Histori-cal Sciences / Kursk State University. 412 p. (in Russ.)

Ershov, B.A., (2013) Russian Orthodox Church in the structure of public administration in the XIX - early XX centuries: Monograph Voronezh State Technical University. 245 p. (in Russ.)

Esping-Andersen G. (1990) The Three World of Welfare Capitalism. Pp. 26-33. (in Russ.)

Kholostova E.I., Sovrina A.S. (2004) Social work: theory and practice. (in Russ.)

Lavrienko I.M. (2000) State Social Policy of the Russian Federation: Experience and Transformation Problems (80s - first half of the 20th century of the 20th century). Pp. 54-59. (in Russ.)

Maslova L.A. (2004) Improvement of organizational forms of management of the system of social pro-tection of the population in the region. Pp.16-17. (in Russ.)

Panarin A.S. (2002) Temptation of globalism. Pp. 415-416. (in Russ.)

Perevozchikova L.S., Ershov B.A., Ashmarov I.A., Volkova E.A. (2017) Role of Russian Orthodox Church in life of peasants in Russia in XIX - the beginning of the XX-th centuries Bylye Gody Russian Histor-ical Journal. №. 43 (1). Pp. 121-128. (in Russ.)

Platonov N.A., Shumaeva V.A., Butieva I.V. (2008) State regulation of the national economy.

Romanovskaya E.S., (2007) Transformation of the system of social protection of the population: the experience of sociological research. Pp. 6-90.

Titmuss R., (1974) Social Policy An Introduction. Pp. 30-31. (in Russ.)

Download_Tuzikov 2019.pdf


doi: 10.5281/zenodo.2529702

 

Review article:

2. Burlakova, Elena Sergeevna, Vasilinina, Anastasia Vladimirovna, Ashmarov, Igor Anatol’evich


"Historical Aspects of Economic Activity of the Population in Russia in the XIX Century"


№ 1(3), 2019,


Pp. 9-16.


Date of publication: 12 January, 2019


Article metadata

Abstract:

The article deals with the economic activity of the main part of the Russian population in the first half of the XIX century. Special attention is paid to the life of peasants, their homes and customs.

Russian peasants were quite modest in household use. Also in the article it is spoken about food which in the conditions of natural, consumer character of country economy was result of production activity of the farmer.

The article describes the everyday and celebration clothes, which preserved the traditional, archaic features formed in ancient times. Attention is paid to the shoes worn by peasants. An impressive shift in the existence of Russian society was the state, almost most of which were in slavery, but at the beginning of this period they became free. However, the latest trends often did not displace the old ones, which, in turn, hindered the development of the country. All this helps us to more accurately imagine the life of the peasants of the XIX century.

 

Keywords: peasants, life of peasants, hut («izba»), outfits, food, crafts.

 

Reference List

Alekseev V.P. (1994). Faceted oak-tree (Grannyj dub). 287 р. (in Russ.).

Ashmarov I.A. (2008) The development of the domestic labour market at the beginning of the XX century // Historical and economic studies // Irkutsk Baikal State University of Economics and Law. V.9. № 1. Pp. 43-57. (in Russ.).

Ashmarov I.A. (2014). Institutional aspect of the study of traditional culture // Bolkhovitinovskie readings - 2014: a collection of scientific papers of the conference. - Voronezh: Voronezh State Academy of Arts. Pp. 17-21. (in Russ.).

Ashmarov I.A., Domnikova L.V. (2007) The rise of the Russian economy at the turn of the XIX - XX centuries. - experience Witte // Strategy of Russia in XXI century: revival of global significance: Materials of regional scientific-practical stud. conf. / Ed. N.A. Duskova. Voronezh: Voronezh State Technical University. Pp. 21-23. (in Russ.).

Ashmarov I.A., Ershov B.A. (2018) Church as a social and economic institution of society in the XIX - early XX centuries. // II International Scientific and Practical Conference "Orthodoxy and Society: the Edge of Interaction". - Chita: Transbaikal State University. Pp. 33-41. (in Russ.).

Ashmarov I.A., Merkulova Yu.M. (2007) Historical Causes of Russia's Lagging // War and Terrorism in the Past and the Present: Sociopolitical and Economic Aspects: Materials Interuniversity. scientific stud conf. Voronezh: Voronezh State University - International Institute of Computer Technologies. Pp. 130-131. (in Russ.).

Bezghini V.B., (2004). Traditions of peasant life of the late XIX - early XX century. 187 р. (in Russ.). Bezgin, V.B. (2004). Peasant daily routine (traditions of the late XIX - early XX centuries). 304 р. (in Russ.).

Brzhesky N.K. (1908). Essays on the agrarian life of peasants. The agricultural center of Russia and its impoverishment. 401 р. (in Russ.).

Encyclopedia in 5 tons. T. 1. M., 1994. (in Russ.).

Ershov B.A., (2010) Church land tenure of the Russian Province in the XIX century. Society.

Wednesday. Development. Pp. 38-42.

Ershov B. A. (2011) Relationship of the Russian Orthodox Church with Society and Government in the Provinces of the Central Chernozem Region in a XIX - early XX centuries. Historical, Philosophical, Political and Law Sciences, Culturology and Study of Art. Theory and Practice. Pp. 58-60.

Ershov B.A., (2011) Family bases of Life of Priests in the Central Chernozem Region in the XIX century. Historical, philosophical, political and legal sciences, cultural studies and art history. Questions of theory and practice. Pp. 68-71.

Gorky M. (2013) On the Russian Peasantry [Electronic resource] // Russian Binding. October 27, 2013.

Retrieved from http://www.pereplet.ru/text/peshkov25oct13.html (in Russ.).

Kirsanova R.M. (2002). Russian costume and life of the XVIII-XIX centuries. 208 р. (in Russ.). Kleyankin A.B. (1974). The economy of landowners and specific peasants of the Simbirsk province in the first half of the XIX century. 356 р. (in Russ.).

Kornilov A.A. (1893). Seven months among the starving peasants. 197 р. (in Russ.).

Koshman, L.V., Sysoeva, E.K. (2011). History of Russian Culture of the IXth — XXth Centuries. 490 р. (in Russ.).

Mashkin, A.S. (1862). Life of peasants, Kursk province, Oboyan district. Ethnographic collection. Issue V. SPb. 98 р. (in Russ.).

Miloradovich V.P. (1902). The Life of the Lubensky Peasant. // Journal «Kiev Antiquity». No. 4, Pp. 10-135, No. 6, Pp. 392-434, No. 10, Pp. 62-91. (in Russ.).

Molleson II. (1904). Brief essay on some data on the waste fields of the Tambov province in 1899. 260 (in Russ.).

Orlov A.S., Georgiev V.A., Georgieva N.G., Sivokhina T.S., (1997) The history of Russia from ancient times to the present day. Textbook. 289 р. (in Russ.).

Perevozchikova L.S., Ershov B.A., Ashmarov I.A., Volkova E.A. (2017) Role of Russian Orthodox Church in life of peasants in Russia in XIX - the beginning of the XX-th centuries Bylye Gody Russian Historical Journal. №. 43 (1). Pp. 121-128.

Privalova T.V. (2000). Life of a Russian village (medical and sanitary condition of a village in European Russia) 60s XIX - 20s. XX century. 390 р. (in Russ.).

Shepelev A.A. (1997). City on the river Tsna. 120 р. (in Russ.).

Shingarev A.I. (1907). The Endangered Village. Experience of sanitary-economic research of two villages in the Voronezh province. 130 р. (in Russ.).

Tartakovsky A.G. (1997). Paul I. Romanovs. Historical portraits. 503 р. (in Russ.).

Zheleznov, F.A. (1962). Voronezh village. Bol'she–Verejskaya volost (Big Vereisk parish). Issue II. 390 р. (in Russ.).

Zhudin I.M. (1991). On the land of Oryol. 476 р. (in Russ.).

Download_Burlakova__Ashmarov 2019.pdf


doi: 10.5281/zenodo.2529704

 

Review article:

3. Zolotareva, Viktoria Sergeevna, Snagovskaja, Julia Sergeevna


"Legal Basics of Status of the Orthodox Church in Russia"


№ 1(3), 2019,


Pp. 17-22.


Date of publication: 15 January, 2019


Article metadata

Abstract:

The article is devoted to the history of relations between the state and the Church. In the history of the Church there are many dramatic pages: rivalry and open confrontation, the desire of the Church authorities to subdue the state power and the struggle of the state for a way out of the influence and control of the Church. Special attention is paid to the relations of secular and Church authorities, which permeate the histo-ry of many States. These relations served as the basis for the development of various philosophical theories, changes in social ideas about the functions of religious ideology. In recent years, the influence of the Church and religious norms and values on the life of society in post-socialist States has increased markedly.

This is to some extent due to a significant change in living conditions and approach to religion as the most important unifying force and factor of spiritual and moral revival of Russia. It is shown that today in Russia there is a consolidation of religious denominations and freedom of religion is the highest value.

 

Keywords: Law, history, church, canon, society.

 

Reference List

Biblical encyclopedia. (1990). Pp. 78-80.

Bolotov I.A., (1995) Lecture on the history of the ancient church. Pp. 211-213.

Church in a transitional society. (1997). Ed. Free thought. Pp. 232-233.

Ershov B.A., (2010) Church land tenure of the Russian Province in the XIX century. Society. Wednes-day. Development. Pp. 38-42.

Ershov B. A. (2011) Relationship of the Russian Orthodox Church with Society and Government in the Provinces of the Central Chernozem Region in a XIX - early XX centuries. Historical, Philosophical, Political and Law Sciences, Culturology and Study of Art. Theory and Practice. Pp. 58-60.

Ershov B.A., (2011) Family bases of Life of Priests in the Central Chernozem Region in the XIX cen-tury. Historical, philosophical, political and legal sciences, cultural studies and art history. Questions of theory and practice. Pp. 68-71.

Ershov, B.A., (2012) State legal regulation of the activities of the Russian Orthodox Church in the prov-inces of the Central Chernozem region in the XIX -early XX centuries Historical, philosophical, political and legal sciences, culturology and arthistory. Questions of theory and practice. Pp. 75-78.

Federal Law “On Freedom of Conscience and Religious Associations”. 09/26/1997. Revision of July 25, 2002 Consultant Plus. Pp.120-125.

Kimmo Kaariainen, Dmitry Furman. (2000) Religiosity in Russia in the 90 Old Churches, New Believs: Religion in the mass consciousness of post-Soviet Russia. Izd. Summer Garden. Pp. 45-48.

Krasikov A., (1995) Religions, churches, state: Russia at the turn of two centuries. Pp. 320-322.

Mironov O., The conclusion on the verification of compliance of the federal law “On Freedom of Conscience and Religious Associations” with the international legal obligations of the Russian Federation. Con-sultant Plus. Pp. 340-341.

Nikol'skiy N.M., (1983) History of the Russian Church. Pp. 123-124.

Patriarch Alexy II: the gift of freedom must be properly disposed of. Kommersant № 10.06.2000. Pp.

53-55.

Pyaskovsky N.V., (1997) The Church and the people's rule. Ed. Sowing. Pp. 90-91.

Radugin A.A., (1999) Introduction to religious studies. Lecture course. Izd. "Center". Pp. 61-62.

Religion and politics in modern Russia (1998). Nezavisimaya Gazeta. Pp. 80-81.

Religion in history and culture. (1998) Culture and Sport Pp. 65-68.

Rozanov V.V., (1992) Religion. Philosophy. Culture. Pp. 410-420.

Samigin S.I., Nechipurenko V.I., Polonskaya I.N., (1996) Religious studies: sociology and psychology of religion. Phoenix. 672 p.

Schapova A.N., (1994) Religions of the world. “Enlightenment”. Pp. 489-490.

Yablokova I.N., (1994) Fundamentals of Religious Studies. Pp. 368-369.

Download_Zolotareva 2019.pdf


doi: 10.5281/zenodo.2529706

 

Review article:

4. Ashmarov, Igor Anatol’evich


"To the Question of the State of the Soviet Pre-War Economy in the Late 1930s – early 1940s"


№ 1(3), 2019,


Pp. 23-28.


Date of publication: 28 January, 2019


Article metadata

Abstract:

The article is devoted to the history of relations between the state and the Church. In the history of the Church there are many dramatic pages: rivalry and open confrontation, the desire of the Church authorities to subdue the state power and the struggle of the state for a way out of the influence and control of the Church. Special attention is paid to the relations of secular and Church authorities, which permeate the histo-ry of many States. These relations served as the basis for the development of various philosophical theories, changes in social ideas about the functions of religious ideology. In recent years, the influence of the Church and religious norms and values on the life of society in post-socialist States has increased markedly.

This is to some extent due to a significant change in living conditions and approach to religion as the most important unifying force and factor of spiritual and moral revival of Russia. It is shown that today in Russia there is a consolidation of religious denominations and freedom of religion is the highest value.

 

Keywords: Law, history, church, canon, society.

 

Reference List

Biblical encyclopedia. (1990). Pp. 78-80.

Bolotov I.A., (1995) Lecture on the history of the ancient church. Pp. 211-213.

Church in a transitional society. (1997). Ed. Free thought. Pp. 232-233.

Ershov B.A., (2010) Church land tenure of the Russian Province in the XIX century. Society. Wednes-day. Development. Pp. 38-42.

Ershov B. A. (2011) Relationship of the Russian Orthodox Church with Society and Government in the Provinces of the Central Chernozem Region in a XIX - early XX centuries. Historical, Philosophical, Political and Law Sciences, Culturology and Study of Art. Theory and Practice. Pp. 58-60.

Ershov B.A., (2011) Family bases of Life of Priests in the Central Chernozem Region in the XIX cen-tury. Historical, philosophical, political and legal sciences, cultural studies and art history. Questions of theory and practice. Pp. 68-71.

Ershov, B.A., (2012) State legal regulation of the activities of the Russian Orthodox Church in the prov-inces of the Central Chernozem region in the XIX -early XX centuries Historical, philosophical, political and legal sciences, culturology and arthistory. Questions of theory and practice. Pp. 75-78.

Federal Law “On Freedom of Conscience and Religious Associations”. 09/26/1997. Revision of July 25, 2002 Consultant Plus. Pp.120-125.

Kimmo Kaariainen, Dmitry Furman. (2000) Religiosity in Russia in the 90 Old Churches, New Believs: Religion in the mass consciousness of post-Soviet Russia. Izd. Summer Garden. Pp. 45-48.

Krasikov A., (1995) Religions, churches, state: Russia at the turn of two centuries. Pp. 320-322.

Mironov O., The conclusion on the verification of compliance of the federal law “On Freedom of Conscience and Religious Associations” with the international legal obligations of the Russian Federation. Con-sultant Plus. Pp. 340-341.

Nikol'skiy N.M., (1983) History of the Russian Church. Pp. 123-124.

Patriarch Alexy II: the gift of freedom must be properly disposed of. Kommersant № 10.06.2000. Pp.

53-55.

Pyaskovsky N.V., (1997) The Church and the people's rule. Ed. Sowing. Pp. 90-91.

Radugin A.A., (1999) Introduction to religious studies. Lecture course. Izd. "Center". Pp. 61-62.

Religion and politics in modern Russia (1998). Nezavisimaya Gazeta. Pp. 80-81.

Religion in history and culture. (1998) Culture and Sport Pp. 65-68.

Rozanov V.V., (1992) Religion. Philosophy. Culture. Pp. 410-420.

Samigin S.I., Nechipurenko V.I., Polonskaya I.N., (1996) Religious studies: sociology and psychology of religion. Phoenix. 672 p.

Schapova A.N., (1994) Religions of the world. “Enlightenment”. Pp. 489-490.

Yablokova I.N., (1994) Fundamentals of Religious Studies. Pp. 368-369.

Download_Ashmarov_I_A 2019.pdf


doi: 10.5281/zenodo.2529710

 

Review article:

5. Krylov, Nikita Vladimirovich, Stepanenko, Igor Sergeevich


"Legal Framework of Local Self-Government in Russia"


№ 1(3), 2019,


Pp. 29-34.


Date of publication: 30 January, 2019


Article metadata

Abstract:

The article is devoted to the history of relations between the state and the Church. In the history of the Church there are many dramatic pages: rivalry and open confrontation, the desire of the Church authorities to subdue the state power and the struggle of the state for a way out of the influence and control of the Church. Special attention is paid to the relations of secular and Church authorities, which permeate the histo-ry of many States. These relations served as the basis for the development of various philosophical theories, changes in social ideas about the functions of religious ideology. In recent years, the influence of the Church and religious norms and values on the life of society in post-socialist States has increased markedly.

This is to some extent due to a significant change in living conditions and approach to religion as the most important unifying force and factor of spiritual and moral revival of Russia. It is shown that today in Russia there is a consolidation of religious denominations and freedom of religion is the highest value.

 

Keywords: Law, history, church, canon, society.

 

Reference List

Biblical encyclopedia. (1990). Pp. 78-80.

Bolotov I.A., (1995) Lecture on the history of the ancient church. Pp. 211-213.

Church in a transitional society. (1997). Ed. Free thought. Pp. 232-233.

Ershov B.A., (2010) Church land tenure of the Russian Province in the XIX century. Society. Wednes-day. Development. Pp. 38-42.

Ershov B. A. (2011) Relationship of the Russian Orthodox Church with Society and Government in the Provinces of the Central Chernozem Region in a XIX - early XX centuries. Historical, Philosophical, Political and Law Sciences, Culturology and Study of Art. Theory and Practice. Pp. 58-60.

Ershov B.A., (2011) Family bases of Life of Priests in the Central Chernozem Region in the XIX cen-tury. Historical, philosophical, political and legal sciences, cultural studies and art history. Questions of theory and practice. Pp. 68-71.

Ershov, B.A., (2012) State legal regulation of the activities of the Russian Orthodox Church in the prov-inces of the Central Chernozem region in the XIX -early XX centuries Historical, philosophical, political and legal sciences, culturology and arthistory. Questions of theory and practice. Pp. 75-78.

Federal Law “On Freedom of Conscience and Religious Associations”. 09/26/1997. Revision of July 25, 2002 Consultant Plus. Pp.120-125.

Kimmo Kaariainen, Dmitry Furman. (2000) Religiosity in Russia in the 90 Old Churches, New Believs: Religion in the mass consciousness of post-Soviet Russia. Izd. Summer Garden. Pp. 45-48.

Krasikov A., (1995) Religions, churches, state: Russia at the turn of two centuries. Pp. 320-322.

Mironov O., The conclusion on the verification of compliance of the federal law “On Freedom of Conscience and Religious Associations” with the international legal obligations of the Russian Federation. Con-sultant Plus. Pp. 340-341.

Nikol'skiy N.M., (1983) History of the Russian Church. Pp. 123-124.

Patriarch Alexy II: the gift of freedom must be properly disposed of. Kommersant № 10.06.2000. Pp.

53-55.

Pyaskovsky N.V., (1997) The Church and the people's rule. Ed. Sowing. Pp. 90-91.

Radugin A.A., (1999) Introduction to religious studies. Lecture course. Izd. "Center". Pp. 61-62.

Religion and politics in modern Russia (1998). Nezavisimaya Gazeta. Pp. 80-81.

Religion in history and culture. (1998) Culture and Sport Pp. 65-68.

Rozanov V.V., (1992) Religion. Philosophy. Culture. Pp. 410-420.

Samigin S.I., Nechipurenko V.I., Polonskaya I.N., (1996) Religious studies: sociology and psychology of religion. Phoenix. 672 p.

Schapova A.N., (1994) Religions of the world. “Enlightenment”. Pp. 489-490.

Yablokova I.N., (1994) Fundamentals of Religious Studies. Pp. 368-369.

Download_Krylov № 3 2019.pdf


doi: 10.5281/zenodo.2529909

 

Research article:

6. Bisong, Peter Bisong


"Mapping Out the Domain of an African Philosopher"


№ 1(3), 2019,


Pp. 35-42.


Date of publication: 1 February, 2019


Article metadata

Abstract:

The question, who is a philosopher? seems simple at surface value but when looked at deeply, becomes perplexing and even annoying. What criteria are to be used to categorize someone as a philosopher? In answer to this question, many criteria have been given in history; some of them too embracing that, there make all human beings philosophers, and some too strict that some who have a genuine claim to being philosophers are shockingly left out.

I have been bothered for years about the loose criteria that qualifies every human as a philosopher, but what prompt this research is the strict criteria that put even those with a Ph.D in philosophy at risk of being excluded from the category - philosopher. This worrying criterion is the one adopted by Chimakonam and others of his ilk.

They argue that a philosopher is one that mainly creates ideas. This research lays forth a criteria for assessing who a philosopher is – one that avoids both extremes, bridges the dichotomy between thought and practice and would enhance the speedy development of African philosophy. As will be explained in the body of the work, a philosopher is one who consciously and deliberately either preoccupies self with the creation of ideas, interprets (analyzes) ideas or applies ideas.

 

Keywords: philosopher, African philosophy, ethnophilosophy, worldview.

 

Reference List

Chimakonam Jonathan. (2016) Can the philosophy curriculum be Africanized? An examination of the prospects and challenges of some models. South African Journal of Philosophy. vol. 35. №. 4 Pp. 513-522. (in Eng).

Hountondji Paulin. (2003) An Alienated Literature. Trends in African Philosophy 147, in The African Philosophy Reader. (Second edition).Eds. P.H. Goetze & A.P. Roux. New York: Routledge. (in Eng).

Metz Thaddeus. (2016) Teaching African philosophy alongside Western philosophy: some advice about topics and texts. South African Journal of Philosophy. vol. 35. №. 4 Pp. 490-500. (in Eng).

Momoh C. (2003) African philosophy: nature, schools and substance. Philosophy for all disciplines. Ed Jin Unah. (Lagos: Joja Educational Research and Publication). (in Eng).

Nweke Victor. (2016) Global warming as an ontological boomerang effect: towards a philosophical rescue from the African place in A Paper presented at the international colloquium on Marginalization of Philosophy in Africa: Women and Environment. University of Calabar. (in Eng).

Nwigwe, B. (2005) The Philosopher and the Society: Portrait of Msgr. T. Okere in African Philosophy and the Hermeneutics of Culture: Essays in Honour of Theophilus Okere. Eds. J. O. Oguejiofor & G. I. Onah. (New Bruswick: Transaction Publishers). (in Eng).

Odera Henry. As quoted by Peter Bello in African Philosophy in a crisis of Method. NAPSSEC Journal of African Philosophy. Vol. 2, 200, Pp. 8-9. (in Eng).

Oruka Henry. (1990) Trends in Contemporary African Philosophy. Nairobi: Shirikon Pub. (in Eng).

Oruka Henry. (1991) African philosophy: A brief personal history and the current debate. H. O. Oruka ed. Sage Philosophy: Indigenous thinkers and modern debate on African philosophy. Nairobi: African Centre for Technology Studies. (in Eng).

Osuagwu M. (2005) Philosophy of Non-philosophy: Okere‟s Trilogy on African Philosophy. African Philosophy and the Hermeneutics of Culture: Essays in Honour of Theophilus Okere. Ed. J. O. Oguejiofor & G. I. Onah. (New Bruswick: Transaction Publishers). (in Eng).

Download_Bisong__Peter_Bisong_2019.pdf


doi: 10.5281/zenodo.2531915

 

Research article:

7. Shkarubo, Sergey Nikolaevich


"The Nobility of the Russian Empire in the XIX Century: Rights and Duties"


№ 1(3), 2019,


Pp. 43-48.


Date of publication: 5 February, 2019


Article metadata

Abstract:

In article discusses the historical processes of the status of the nobility in Russia in the XIX century. It is shown that it was the nobility that was one of the socially significant groups of the pre-revolutionary society. Despite the fact that hereditary noblemen made up an insignificant share of the total population of Russia, they played an important and sometimes decisive role in state and public life. Particular attention is paid to the life of the nobility, their traditions, which were characteristic of Russian society in the second half of the XIX century.

For the international community, the article is of interest in the light of local historical studies, which indicate the main directions of the historical paradigms of the Russian nobility. The study of the status of the nobility in Russia will make it possible to more deeply and thoroughly explore the processes taking place with this social group in the 19th century in the context of the beginning transition from traditional (agrarian) to modern (industrial) society.

 

Keywords: state, estate, education, aristocracy, church.

 

Reference List

Arkhipova T.G., (2000) The history of public service in Russia. XVIII-XX centuries. 231 p.

Ashmarov I.A., (2014). Global contradictions of Russia and the West Actual problems of development of Russia and its regions: materials Vseross. scientific and practical conf. (November 11, 2014) - Kurgan: Dammy Printing House LLC. - Pp. 24-27.

Ashmarov I.A., (2015). The struggle for power as the eternal basis of conflicts in society Power and society: the practice of interaction and conflict. Materials of the Ninth Region. scientific conf. (Voronezh, February 2, 2015). / under the general ed. V.N. Glazyev. - Voronezh: Publishing house "Istoki". Pp. 408-412.

Ashmarov I.A., Domnikova L.V. (2007) The rise of the Russian economy at the turn of the XIX - XX centuries. Experience S. Y. Witte Strategy of Russia in the XXI century: the revival of global significance: materials of the regional scientific practical student. conf. / ed. N.A. Duskova. Voronezh: Voronezh State Technical University. Pp. 21-23.

Ashmarov I.A., Ershov B.A. (2018) Church as a social and economic institution of society in the XIX - early XX centuries. II International Scientific and Practical Conference "Orthodoxy and Society: the Edge of Interaction". Chita: Transbaikal State University. Pp. 33-41. (in Russ.).

Ashmarov I.A., Merkulova Y.M. (2007) Historical Causes of Russia's Lagging War and Terrorism in the Past and the Present: Sociopolitical and Economic Aspects: Materials Interuniversity. scientific stud conf. Voronezh: Voronezh State University - International Institute of Computer Technologies. Pp. 130-131.

Chemodurov A. A., (1901) Brief note on the activities of the Samara nobility for the fifty-year period of the existence of the Samara province in 1851-1901. 124 p.

Ershov B.A., (2010) Church landmark of the Russian province in the XIX century. Society. Environment. Development. Pp. 38-42.

Ershov B.A., (2011) Family foundations of clergy in the provinces of the Central Chernozem region in the XIX century. Historical, philosophical, political and legal sciences, cultural studies and art history. Questions of theory and practice. Pp. 68-71.

Ershov B.A., (2011) Socio-psychological characteristics of clergymen of the provinces of the Central Chernozem Region in the 19th - early 20th centuries Historical, philosophical, political and legal sciences, cultural studies and art history. Questions of theory and practice. Pp. 91-94.

Ershov B.A., (2013) Russian Orthodox Church in the structure of state administration in the XIX - beginning of the XX centuries. 245 p.

Fedorchenko V.I., (2003) Noble families who glorified the Fatherland: Encyclopedia of noble families 464 p.

Ivanova N. A., Zheltova V. P., (2004) The class and class structure of Russia in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. 572 p.

Kabytova E.P., (1997) The crisis of the Russian nobility. 142 p.

Karamzin N.M., (1982) Letters of the Russian traveler. The story N.M. Karamzin; Intro. Art. 608 p. Litvinova T.N., (2010) The noble estates of the Voronezh province in the last quarter of the eighteenth century of the first quarter of the nineteenth centuries. 246 p.

Lotman Y.M., (1994) Conversations about Russian culture: Life and traditions of the Russian nobility (XVIII beginning of the XIX century). 399 p.

Marasinova E.H., (1993) "Loving to breathe freely": Noble manor culture of the last third of the XVIII century. Russian province: Culture of the XVIII-XX centuries. Pp. 120-141.

Miller G.F., (1790) The news about the Russian noblemen, about their ancient origin, about the ancient ranks. 494 p.

Ovsyannikov Y.M., (2001) Pictures of Russian life: Styles, morals, etiquette. 352 p.

Platov V., (1904) "Look and Something" about the nobility. University Printing House, Passion Boulevard. 247 p.

Savitsky I.V., (1998) The nobility of the European North of Russia in the middle of the XIX beginning of the XX centuries. 229 p.

Shakhov V., (2006) Some aspects of the history of the social care of representatives of the service class in Russia in the 18th and early 20th centuries. Voprosy of the humanities № 6 (27), Pp. 33-36.

Shkarubo S.N., (2018) Historical significance and main results of the NEPa in the USSR. Modern science: actual problems of theory and practice. Series: Humanities. № 1. Pp. 47-50.

Shkarubo S.N., (2018) USSR foreign policy in the 1930s: features and prospects News of the Voronezh State Pedagogical University. №. 2 (279). Pp. 117-119.

Soloviev B.I., (2000) The Russian nobility and its distinguished representatives. 318 p.

Tankov A. A., (1913) Historical Chronicle of the Kursk Nobility. 28 p.

Wrangel H.H., (1999) Old estates: Essays on the history of Russian noble culture. 320 p.

Yablochkov M. T., (2003) The history of the nobility in Russia. 568 p.

Download_Shkarubo 2019.pdf


doi: 10.5281/zenodo.2542502

 

Review article:

8. Zabariushaya, Darya Konstantinovna


"Social Economic Development of Russia in XIX Century"


№ 1(3), 2019,


Pp. 49-57.


Date of publication: 6 February, 2019


Article metadata

Abstract:

In article describes social and economic development of Russia in ΧІΧ century. Special attention was paid to the study of different reforms of emperors of the time. They have radically changed the country to better side and put it on the path of intensive socio-economic development.

Some of that reforms saved Russia from rebellions, others led to them. Modern scientists have the opportunity to analyze the errors of the time. Many people are interested in what caused these reforms and the consequences they brought. This article answers these questions.

 

Keywords: serfdom, social stratification, industrial revolution, autocracy, reforms.

 

Reference List

Demkin A.V. (2012). Days of Alexandrov fine beginning. Domestic policy of Alexander I in 1801-1805. Kuchkovo Field. (in Russ.).

Derevyanko A. P., Shabelnikova N.A. (2006). History of Russia: studies. grant. Pp.186 – 191. (in Russ.).

Dvornichenko A. Y., Kashchenko S. G., Florinsky M. F. (2002). National history (till 1917): studies. The settlement under the editorship of the prof. I.Ya. Froyanov. Pp. 285 – 305. (in Russ.).

Dzhivelegov A.K., Melgunov S.P., Pichet V.I., (1911). Great reform. The Russian society and a country question in the past and the present. Anniversary edition. In 6 TM. House of association of I.D. Sytin. (in Russ.).

Ershov B. A., Fursov V. N. (2017) The History of the Missionary Service of the Russian Orthodox Church Voprosy Istorii №. 6. Pp. 165-172. (in Russ.).

Ershov B.A., Ashmarov I.A., Drobyshev A.V., Zhdanova T.A., Buravlev I.A. (2017) Property and Land Relations of Russian Orthodox Church and State in Russia The European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences Pp. 324-331.

Ershov, B.A., (2012) Historiographical aspects of the relationship between the Russian Orthodox Church and state structures in the provinces of the Central Chernozem region in the XIX -early XX centuries. Vestnik Voronezh State Technical University. Series "Humanities". Pp. 188-192. (in Russ.).

Ershov, B.A., (2013) Russian Orthodox Church in the structure of public administration in the XIX - early XX centuries: Monograph "Voronezh State Technical University. 245 p. (in Russ.).

Gorinov M.M. (1995). History of Russia: from antiquity up to now The highest School. 430 p. (in Russ.).

Gorinov M.M. (1997). History of Russia: The manual. Under the editorship (in Russ.).

Klyuchevsky V. O. (1995). Russian history: full course of lectures: in 3 princes – Prince 3. Pp. 431 – 449. (in Russ.).

Kornilov A. A. (2004).Course of the Russian history of the 19th century. Pp. 271 – 373. (in Russ.).

Kosulinoy L.G. Under the editorship Knowledge. 240 p. (in Russ.).

Pavlenko N.I. (2000). The history of Russia from the most ancient times to 1861: studies. for higher education institutions. Under the editorship. Pp. 473 – 519. (in Russ.).

Platonov S. F. (2005). A course of lectures on the Russian history. Pp. 384 – 396. (in Russ.).

Pushkarev S. G. (2002). Review of the Russian history. Pp. 343 – 354. (in Russ.).

Sakharov A.N. (1997) The history of Russia since the beginning of XVIII until the end of the 19th century. Under the editorship Institute of the Russian history of RASP. 306 p. (in Russ.).

Semenikova L. I., Golovkina N.L., Sdobnina T. V., Cherkesova N. N. (2004). National history: The settlement for higher education institutions. Pp. 134 – 144. (in Russ.).

Semennikova L.I. (2000). Russia in the international community of civilizations. Bryansk, "Italics", 539 p. (in Russ.).

Troitsk N.A. (2003). Russia in the 19th century: course of lectures: studies. grant. Pp. 101–171. (in Russ.).

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doi: 10.5281/zenodo.2550837

 

Research article:

9. Ershov, Bogdan Anatolievich, Belorukov, Semyon Antonovich, Bykov, Alexey Gennadievich, Serikov, Timur Aleksandrovich


"The Role of the Church in Medieval Society"


№ 1(3), 2019,


Pp. 58-64.


Date of publication: 7 February, 2019


Article metadata

Abstract:

In article discusses the role of the church in medieval society, where religion and the church continued to be an important component of medieval culture. In the context of the general decline of culture immediately after the collapse of the Roman Empire, only the Church was the only social institution common to all countries of Western Europe.

The church was not only the dominant political institution, but also had a significant impact directly on the consciousness of the population. In a difficult and scanty life, against the background of an extremely limited and unreliable knowledge of the world, the Church offered the people a moral worldview system. This religious worldview fully determined the mentality of the population of Western Europe based on the interpretation of the Bible.

 

Keywords: Church, religion, society, Christianity, middle ages, history, culture, monasteries, faith.

 

Reference List

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Ershov B. A., Fursov V. N. (2017) The History of the Missionary Service of the Russian Orthodox Church Voprosy Istorii №. 6. Pp. 165-172. (in Russ.).

Ershov B.A. (2013) Russian Orthodox Church in the structure of public administration in the XIX -early XX centuries: Monograph "Voronezh State Technical University. 245 p. (in Russ.).

Ershov B.A. (2012) The Russian Orthodox Church in the system of public relations in the XIX– early centuries. (on materials of Central-Black earth Provinces) dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Historical Sciences / Kursk State University. 412 p. (in Russ.)

Ershov B.A., Ashmarov I.A., Drobyshev A.V., Zhdanova T.A., Buravlev I.A. (2017) Property and Land Relations of Russian Orthodox Church and State in Russia The European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences Pp. 324-331. (in Russ.).

Ershova G.G. (2003) Science and religion: a new symbiosis? Modeling the picture of the world: historical, psychological, systemic and informational aspects. 368 p. (in Russ.).

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Grinenko G.V. (1999) Anthology of world culture history. 669 p. (in Russ.).

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Luchinskaya S.I. (1994) Culture and society of the Western European middle ages. 486 p. (in Russ.). Lyashevsky S. (1996) Bible and science. Fraternity Publishing House in the name of the icon of the Mother of God. 288 p. (in Russ.).

Mudragey N.S. (1989) Medieval and scientific thought Voprosy Philosophy. № 12. Pp. 16-26. (in Russ.). (in Russ.).

Neretina S.S. (1994) Word and text in medieval culture. History: myth, time, riddle. 216 p. (in Russ.). Perevozchikova L.S., Ershov B.A., Ashmarov I.A., Volkova E.A. (2017) Role of Russian Orthodox Church in life of peasants in Russia in XIX - the beginning of the XX-th centuries Bylye Gody Russian Historical Journal. №. 43 (1). Pp. 121-128.

Platonov E.E. (2003). Lecture Notes on cultural studies 304 p. (in Russ.).

Posnov M.E. (2002) History of the Christian Church (before the division of the Churches - 1054). 344 p. (in Russ.).

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Real, D., Antiseri D. (1994) Western philosophy from its origins to the present day. Vol. 2. Middle ages (from the Biblical message to Machiavelli) 583 p. (in Russ.).

Spektorsky E.V. (1925) Christianity and Culture. Prague: The Flame. 308 p. (in Russ.). Strauss D.F. (1992) The Life of Jesus. Republic. 447 p. (in Russ.).

The role of Christianity in European civilization. European almanac: History. Traditions. Culture Rode. 458 p. (in Russ.).

Tolochkov A. Y., Ershov B. A. (2015) Historical Role of the USSR in the Second World War Military pages of the history of the great Patriotic war (to the 70th anniversary of the Victory in the great Patriotic war) the Proceedings of the International conference. Pp. 104-107. (in Russ.).

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Zarin V.A. (1991) West and East in world history of the XIV-XIX centuries. Western concepts of social development and the emergence of a global market. Nauka. 261 p. (in Russ.).

Download_Belorukov 2019.pdf


doi: 10.5281/zenodo.2555333

 

Review article:

10. Saparbayev, Bunyodbek


"The Work "Firdaws Al-Iqbal" and the Research of the Period of Muhammad Rahimkhan I During the years of Independence in Uzbekistan"


№ 1(3), 2019,


Pp. 65-70.


Date of publication: 10 February, 2019


Article metadata

Abstract:

This article highlights the significance of the work “Firdaws al-iqbal” as a monumental historical source. The work provides an observation for the works of researchers Ruzimbaev S., Ahmedov A., Khudoyberganov K., Khollieva G., Mutalov O., Matniyazov M. and other scientists as well as the research of the history of the period of Muhammad Rahimkhan I during the years of independence in Uzbekistan.

The information about the scientists who conducted research on the period of Muhammad Rahimkhan I is also presented. Opinions regarding the consolidated edition of the work published in Leyden and the publications announced in 2010 in Uzbek language are provided as well. Not only historical but also literary value of the work is accentuated.

 

Keywords: «Firdaws al-iqbal», Munis, Agahi, Muhammad Rahimkhan I, society, country, religion.

 

Reference List

Agahiy‟s eternity (1999). «Uzbekistan»: Tashkent.

Bulatov M.S. (1976) Samanids Mausoleum is the pearl of Central Asian architecture. Tashkent, publishing house of literature and art. Ghafur Gulyam. 128 p. (in Russ).

Filimonov V.M. (1967) A unique monument of civil architecture - Muzlum Sulu Palace. Materials on the history and restoration of architectural monuments of Uzbekistan, no. 1, Tashkent. Pp. 63-65. (in Russ).

Kholliyeva G. (2009) The study of Agahi‟s work abroad. Uzbek language and literature, № 9. Tashkent.

Kholliyeva G. (2007). «About the scientific-critical text on Firdaws al-iqbal published abroad». Uzbek language and literature, № 4. Tashkent.

Kholliyeva G. (2008). The study of «Firdaws al-iqbal‟s» abroad. Uzbek language and literature. № 2. Tashkent.

Kholliyeva G. (2009) «Firdaws al-iqbal» as a literary source. Uzbek language and literature № 1. Tashkent.

Khudayberganov K. (2008). Of the history of Khiva khans. Khorezm: Urgench.

Kryukov K.S. (1988) Problems of restoration of architectural monuments. Architecture and Construction of Uzbekistan. №. 8. Pp. 18-23. (in Russ).

Matniyozov М. (2011). Khorezm and Khorezmians from the mirror of the history. «University»: Urgench.

Metz Adam. (1966) Muslim renaissance. Nauka Publishing House, main editorial board of oriental literature. 459 p. (in Russ).

Mutalov О. (2005). The Khiva Khanate during the reign of Ollokulikhan. OFSET – PRINT: Tashkent.

Pisarchik A.K. (1954) Building materials and constructive techniques of folk craftsmen of the Fergana Valley in the XIX and the beginning of the XX centuries Central Asian ethnographic collection. M., publishing house ANSSSR. 211 p. (in Russ).

Rtveladze, E.V., Khakimov, Z.A. (1973) Route studies of the monuments of Northern Bactria. From the history of ancient culture of Uzbekistan, Tashkent, publishing house of literature and art. Ghafur Gulyam. 136 p. (in Russ).

Ruzimboyev S., Аhmedov А. (2009). About literary genres in the work «Firdaws al-iqbal‟». Uzbek language and literature, № 6. Tashkent.

Ruzimboyev S., Аhmedov А., Yuldoshev R. (2008). The literary-historical legacy of Agahi. «University»: Urgench.

Shermuhammad Munis Khorazmi, Muhammadrizo Agahi. (2010) «Firdaws al-iqbal». Tashkent: Okituvchi. (The persons who prepared the work for the publishing: Djumakhodja N., Ruzimboyev S., Аhmedov A.)

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Voronin V.L. (1957) Folk traditions of architecture of Uzbekistan. Moscow, publishing house of architecture and urban planning. 168 p. (in Russ).

Download_Saparbayev 2019.pdf


doi: 10.5281/zenodo.2559565

 

Review article:

11. Chekmeneva, Tatyana Gennadievna


"Methodology of the Cognition of History of A. Toynbee"


№ 1(3), 2019,


Pp. 71-82.


Date of publication: 15 February, 2019


Article metadata

Abstract:

The question of the dual orientation of the historical process is currently being sharply debated. On the one hand, in the course of history, there is a desire for unity and integrity of the human community, on the other - we see a tendency for each subject to preserve the social reality of his independence, uniqueness and individuality. This contradiction is not a product of the theoretical reflection of researchers; this phenomenon has objective grounds hidden in the dialectical essence of social phenomena, the nature of which has not been sufficiently studied. This circumstance leads to the fact that researchers disagree about the driving mechanisms and the nature of the historical process. Some highlight the idea of unity, others the idea of identity. This is where various versions of the course of history emerge, among which the most debatable in social philosophy are concepts based on two alternative approaches - linear-formational and cultural-civilizational. Modern science can adequately and accurately describe the specific societies that existed in the historical process, but does not have the tools that would clearly define the system-forming bases of civilizations.

Thus, there is a crisis in the modern methodology of socio-historical knowledge. The methodology is designed to form the scientific and educational background for the conduct of specific historical research: from the formulation of the problem to the interpretation of the results. Closely related to the methodology are research methods, which include procedures, techniques and tools for research, analysis, validation and evaluation of data. It must be assumed that the future of the methodology of comprehending the historical process will depend on a fruitful dialogue between various approaches and models developed and developed in the field of social and humanitarian knowledge. The philosophical and historical concept of Arnold Toynbee suggests a synthesis of linear and civilizational approaches to the historical process. The article presents a brief biography of Arnold Toynbee, which allows to understand the formation and evolution of the views of the English historian. We consider the methods of knowledge of history, used in

Toynbee's philosophical and historical concept. A historian who philosophically interprets the dialectic of human development, according to Toynbee, should look for the meaning of world history.

At the same time, the comprehension of history as a definite integrity does not exclude the interest of a scientist to certain local civilizations that are subjected to morphological analysis. The result of the comparative study of the world-historical process, according to his opinion, should be not only a typology of local civilizations, but also the development of a specific set of "laws" that operate in each of them. Paradoxically, Toynbee, a fierce opponent of historical determinism, advocated a search for the “laws” of social development. In the interpretation of Toynbee, these “laws” are deprived of the status of necessity and appear as simple empirical repetitions. “The laws of the psyche” are the basis for the formulation of the “laws of history,” complementing the “divine law,” leading humanity to love and freedom. The special scientific part of his theoretical views is entirely subordinated to the religious-philosophical concept. The methodology of the British theorist reveals the deep philosophical basis for the evolution of great cultures, hidden behind the diversity of historical events.

Many modern scholars, historians, political scientists agree with A. Toynbee that religion is the main key to comparative research in the field of civilizations and cultures. It is precisely religious ethics that plays a decisive role in the development of the spiritual and economic foundations of all world civilizations. Knowledge of the past, as suggested by the English historian, speaks only of one of the many future possibilities, which makes it possible to avoid a repetition of undesirable developments. The course of human history, according to Toynbee, is not predetermined by anyone in advance.

 

Keywords: historical research, methodology, civilizational approach, linear approach.

 

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Ashmarov I.A. (2015). Mentality as an institution of historical consciousness and social memory Historical consciousness and social memory in the context of the conflict of civilizations: Coll. Art. int. scientific conf. Publishing Center "Science". Pp. 3-6. (in Russ).

Ashmarov I.A., Rostovtsev S.N. (2008). Scientific and technological revolution in the horizon of humanistic values Problems of modern humanism in the “risk society”: works of the region. scientific conf.Voronezh: Voronezh State Technical University. Pp. 33-36. (in Russ).

Bergson, A. (1994) Two sources of morality and religion. 384 p.

Chekmenyova, T.G. (2018) The role of the creative minority in the concept of local civilizations A. Toynbee: relevance for modern Russia Creativity as a national element: media and social activity: collection of articles. Publishing House of St. Petersburg State University of Economics. Pp. 181-198. (in Russ).

Chepikov, E.V., Ukhanov, V.A. (2009) Development of a civilizational approach to the historical process in A. Toynbee philosophy Bulletin of the Pacific State University. № 1 (12). Pp. 249-256. (in Russ).

Collingwood, R.J. (1980) The Idea of History: An Autobiography. Science. 485 p. (in Russ).

Ershov B. A., Ashmarov A. I., Drobyshev V. A., Zhdanova TA, Buravlev A. I. (2017) Property and Land Relations of Russian Orthodox Church and State in Russia The European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences Pp. 324-331. (in Russ).

Ershov B.A. (2012) State legal regulation of the activities of the Russian Orthodox Church in the provinces of the Central Chernozem region in the XIX -early XX centuries Historical, philosophical, political and legal sciences, culturology and arthistory. Questions of theory and practice №. 4. Pp. 75-78. (in Russ).

Ershov B.A., Ashmarov I.A. (2018) Interaction of the Orthodox Church and the State in Russia at the Present Stage Bulletin Social-Economic and Humanitarian Research. № 2. Pp. 19-24. (in Russ).

Ershov, B.A. (2013) Russian Orthodox Church in the structure of public administration in the XIX -early XX centuries: Monograph Voronezh State Technical University. 245 p. (in Russ).

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Kon, I.S. (1965) rec. on the book: A.J. Toynbee. Study of history Voprosy Istorii. № 1. Pp. 180-184. (in Russ).

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Muchnik, V.M. (1986) In Search of the Lost Meaning of History. (Genesis and evolution of the historical views of A.J. Toynbee). Tomsk University Press. 200 p. (in Russ).

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doi: 10.5281/zenodo.2562161

 

Research article:

12. Semenenko, Aleksandr Andreyevich


"The Absence of the Sword from Rigveda and Atharvaveda and the Problem of Indo-Aryans’ Origin"


№ 1(3), 2019,


Pp. 83-96.


Date of publication: 16 February, 2019


Article metadata

Abstract:

 

Rigveda and Atharvaveda Shaunaka Samhitas have been carefully analyzed to check whether they mention copper or bronze swords. It has turned out that both texts do not know swords (only knives) and therefore must be dated in their habitats in the Northwest of the Indian subcontinent prior to the introduction of such weapons into the region. Swords have been archaeologically evidenced both in the Indus valley and in the Yamuna–Ganges Doab only after 2000 BC. This confirms the dating of Atharvaveda Shaunaka prior to 2000 BC, and of more archaic Rigveda – a few centuries earlier (prior to 2600 BC).

Then all available data on the copper and bronze swords of different types (straight double-edged, machete–cleaver, sickle-shaped, rapier‘, harpoon‘) originating from the Old World and dating back to 3500– 2000 BC have been collected and scrutinized. Thus Cyclades, Anatolia, Syria, Palestine/ Israel/ Canaan, North-Western Caucasus, Transcaucasia, Akkad, Sumer, Elam and Bactria–Margiana territories have been excluded from the possible homelands of Indo-Aryans in the periods when they already had copper or bronze swords.

 

Keywords: Rigveda, Atharvaveda, Indo-Aryans, Old World, copper or bronze swords.

 

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Abramishvili M. (2010) In search of the origins of metallurgy – An overview of South Caucasian evidence. Von Majkop bis Trialeti: Gewinnung und Verbreitung von Metallen und Obsidian in Kaukasien im 4.–2. Jt. v. Chr. Beiträge des Internationalen Symposiums in Berlinvom 1.–3. Juni 2006. Bonn. Dr. Rudolf Habelt GmbH. Pp. 167–178.

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